The Pardu

The Pardu
Watchful eyes and ears feed the brain, thus nourishing the brain cells.
Showing posts with label George Washington. Show all posts
Showing posts with label George Washington. Show all posts

Sunday, April 20, 2014

Farmer Rebellion Against The Is Government Is Not New To US History

Guidance work re-posted from American Voice of Reason......


American Voice of Reason


























American Voice of Reason






All those who call themselves "patriots" while opposing the United States Federal government, the "PEOPLE's" government, ought to study a little history.

The Founders of the United States wouldn't be siding with a law-breaking moocher like rancher Cliven Bundy. No, the real patriots like General Washington would be on the side of the government OF THE PEOPLE of the United States.

Ever hear of the Whiskey Rebellion in which George Washington PERSONALLY led a force of 13,000 militia men into battle against INSURGENTS who just like Cliven Bundy opposed Federal taxes?
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File:WhiskeyRebellion.jpg

WIKI Media 


WHISKEY REBELLION


In 1794 thousands of farmers in western Pennsylvania took up arms in opposition to the enforcement of a federal law calling for the imposition of an excise tax on distilled spirits. Known as the "Whiskey Rebellion," this insurrection represented the largest organized resistance against federal authority between the American Revolution and the Civil War. A number of the whiskey rebels were prosecuted for treason in what were the first such legal proceedings in the United States.

Congress established the excise tax in 1791 to help reduce the $54 million national debt. The tax was loathed across the country. For a small group of farmers west of the Allegheny Mountains, the federal excise tax was singularly detestable. Bartering was the chief means of exchange in this frontier economy, and distilled spirits were the most commonly traded commodity. Cash was a disfavored currency in western Pennsylvania during the late eighteenth century, but whiskey, especially Monongahela Rye, was as valuable as gold. Whiskey was considered an all-purpose liquor, with locals using it for cooking and medicine, and drinking it at social occasions, among other uses.

By modern standards the excise tax of 1791 does not seem oppressive. Distillers were taxed based on the size of their stills. Stills with the capacity to annually produce at least 400 gallons of whiskey were taxed between 7 and 18 cents a gallon, depending on the proof of the liquor. Distillers who made stronger whiskey paid a higher tax. Smaller stills were taxed at a rate of 10 cents for every month a still was in operation, or 7 cents for every gallon produced, whichever was lower. Based on these rates, the average distiller was required to pay only a few dollars in liquor tax each year. But even an annual tax of $5 would have consumed a large percentage of the disposable income earned by farmers in the barter-based economy of western Pennsylvania.

The rebellion began in Pittsburgh during October of 1791 when a group of disguised farmers snatched a federal tax collector from his bed, and marched him five miles to a blacksmith shop where they stripped him of his clothes, and burned him with a poker. Over the next three years dozens of tax collectors were beaten, shot at, tarred and feathered, and otherwise terrorized, intimidated, and humiliated. The home and plantation of John Neville, the chief tax collector for southwestern Pennsylvania, were burned to the ground.

By 1794 the excise tax lay largely uncollected in western Pennsylvania. The national debt was rising, and respect for federal authority was waning. Rebel forces had swelled to 5,000. In October President george washington dispatched 15,000 troops to quell the resistance. Led by alexander hamilton, Washington's secretary of state, the federal troops met little opposition. Within a month, most of the rebels had dispersed, disavowed their cause, or left the state. Keeping a few soldiers in western Pennsylvania to maintain order, the federal army departed for Philadelphia, having arrested more than 150 people suspected of criminal activity.

In May of 1795 the Circuit Court for the Federal District of Pennsylvania indicted thirty-five defendants for an assortment of crimes associated with the Whiskey Rebellion. One of the defendants died before trial began, one defendant was released because of mistaken identity, and nine others were charged with minor federal offenses. Twenty-four rebels were charged with serious federal offenses, including high treason. Two men, john mitchell and Philip Vigol, were found guilty of treason, and sentenced to hang. Seventeen defendants were convicted of lesser crimes, and sentenced to prison terms of various lengths. Upon learning that none of the convicted rebels were principally responsible for instigating the armed resistance, Washington pardoned each of them.

By extinguishing the Whiskey Rebellion, the U.S. government withstood a formidable challenge to its sovereignty. Preceded by shays's rebellion in 1786, and followed by fries's rebellion in 1799, the Whiskey Rebellion is distinguished by its size. While all three rebellions were motivated by their opposition to burdensome taxes, neither Daniel Shays nor John Fries ever gathered more than a few hundred supporters at any one time. On at least one occasion, as many as 15,000 men and women marched on Pittsburgh in armed opposition to the federal excise tax on whiskey.

The Whiskey Rebellion also occupies a distinguished place in American jurisprudence. Serving as the backdrop to the first treason trials in the United States, the Whiskey Rebellion helped delineate the parameters of this constitutional crime. Article III, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution defines treason as "levying War" against the United States. During the trials of the two men convicted of treason, Circuit Court Judge William Paterson instructed the jury that "levying war" includes armed opposition to the enforcement of a federal law. This interpretation of the Treason Clause was later applied during the trial of John Fries, and remains valid today.

Further Readings

Frear, Ned. 1999. The Whiskey Rebellion. Bedford, Pa.: Frear Publications.

"Whiskey Rebellion." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 20 Apr. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.



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Wednesday, February 6, 2013

Native American - Honoring our Ancestors, Culture Spirituality: A Place In US History


Cross posted from Native American - Honoring Our Ancestors, Culture & Spirituality

Photo: Mt. Rushmore - The Faces of Disgrace to Native & Indigenous Peoples

Mt. Rushmore is a desecration of our Sacred Mother Earth and a slap in the face of Lakota peoples everywhere. Documents have stated that Mt. Rushmore in the Black Hills of South Dakota is a shrine to democracy. As you read further, you will find that American was founded on the blood and lives of Native peoples. We question what type of democracy this shrine represents.
Those four faces carved on stolen Native lands supposedly represent the four most notable presidents in United States history. With their ideals and values defined through the study of Iroquois society, America's founding fathers are indebted to the Lakota and all Native peoples for their mere existence. 
The four founding forefathers, whose faces are so intricately carved into the rock all shared the same common characteristics. All four valued white supremacy and promoted the extirpation of Native society. Extirpation means: to become extinct. Extinction means that a species (Natives) have completely disappeared from the face of the earth i.e., GONE forever.
Our founding forefathers were staunchly anti-Indian advocates in that at one time or another, all four provided for the genocide against Native and Indigenous peoples of this hemisphere. Here they are:

George Washington...
In 1783, Washington's anti-Indian sentiments were apparent in his comparisons of Indians with wolves: "Both being beast of prey, though they differ in shape", he said. George Washington's policies of extermination were realized in his troops behaviors following a defeat. Troops would skin the bodies of Iroquois "from the hips downward to make boot tops or leggings". Indians who survived the attacks later re-named the nation's first president as "Town Destroyer". Approximately 28 of 30 Seneca towns had been destroyed within a five year period.

Thomas Jefferson...
In 1807, Thomas Jefferson instructed his War Department that, should any Indians resist against America stealing Indian lands, the Indian resistance must be met with "the hatchet". Jefferson continued, "And...if ever we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe, " he wrote, "we will never lay it down till that tribe is exterminated, or is driven beyond the Mississippi." Jefferson, the slave owner, continued, "in war, they will kill some of us; we shall destroy all of them".
Abraham Lincoln...
In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln ordered the execution, by hanging, of 38 Dakota Sioux prisoners in Mankato, Minnesota. Most of those executed were spiritual men or political leaders of their tribe. None of them were responsible for committing the crimes they were accused of. This one act is deemed as the "Largest Mass Execution in U.S. History."

Theodore Roosevelt...
The fourth face you see carved on that rock is America's 1st  twentieth century president, an alleged American hero, and a Nobel peace prize recipient, Theodore Roosevelt. This Indian fighter firmly grasped the notion of Manifest Destiny saying that America's extermination of the Indians and thefts of their lands "was ultimately beneficial as it was inevitable". Roosevelt once said, "I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth".

The apathy displayed by these founding fathers symbolize the demoralization related to racial superiority. Scholars point toward this racial polarization as evidence of the existence of Eugenics. Eugenics is a term for an old phenomena which asserts that Indian people should be exterminated because they are an inferior race of people.

Jefferson's suggestion to pursue the Indians to complete extermination. Since they were uttered by one of America's founding fathers, they conveniently have become lost to most historians in their insistent celebration of Jefferson's wisdom and humanity.

Roosevelt feared that American upper classes were being replaced by the "unrestricted breeding" of inferior racial stocks, the "utterly shiftless", and the "worthless".....




Mt. Rushmore - The Faces of Disgrace to Native & Indigenous Peoples

Mt. Rushmore is a desecration of our Sacred Mother Earth and a slap in the face of Lakota peoples everywhere. Documents have stated that Mt. Rushmore in the Black Hills of South Dakota is a shrine to democracy. As you read further, you will find that American was founded on the blood and lives of Native peoples. We question what type of democracy this shrine represents.

Those four faces carved on stolen Native lands supposedly represent the four most notable presidents in United States history. With their ideals and values defined through the study of Iroquois society, America's founding fathers are indebted to the Lakota and all Native peoples for their mere existence.

The four founding forefathers, whose faces are so intricately carved into the rock all shared the same common characteristics. All four valued white supremacy and promoted the extirpation of Native society. Extirpation means: to become extinct. Extinction means that a species (Natives) have completely disappeared from the face of the earth i.e., GONE forever.

Our founding forefathers were staunchly anti-Indian advocates in that at one time or another, all four provided for the genocide against Native and Indigenous peoples of this hemisphere. Here they are:

George Washington...
In 1783, Washington's anti-Indian sentiments were apparent in his comparisons of Indians with wolves: "Both being beast of prey, though they differ in shape", he said. George Washington's policies of extermination were realized in his troops behaviors following a defeat. Troops would skin the bodies of Iroquois "from the hips downward to make boot tops or leggings". Indians who survived the attacks later re-named the nation's first president as "Town Destroyer". Approximately 28 of 30 Seneca towns had been destroyed within a five year period.

Thomas Jefferson...
In 1807, Thomas Jefferson instructed his War Department that, should any Indians resist against America stealing Indian lands, the Indian resistance must be met with "the hatchet". Jefferson continued, "And...if ever we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe, " he wrote, "we will never lay it down till that tribe is exterminated, or is driven beyond the Mississippi." Jefferson, the slave owner, continued, "in war, they will kill some of us; we shall destroy all of them".

Abraham Lincoln...
In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln ordered the execution, by hanging, of 38 Dakota Sioux prisoners in Mankato, Minnesota. Most of those executed were spiritual men or political leaders of their tribe. None of them were responsible for committing the crimes they were accused of. This one act is deemed as the "Largest Mass Execution in U.S. History."

Theodore Roosevelt...
The fourth face you see carved on that rock is America's 1st twentieth century president, an alleged American hero, and a Nobel peace prize recipient, Theodore Roosevelt. This Indian fighter firmly grasped the notion of Manifest Destiny saying that America's extermination of the Indians and thefts of their lands "was ultimately beneficial as it was inevitable". Roosevelt once said, "I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth".

The apathy displayed by these founding fathers symbolize the demoralization related to racial superiority. Scholars point toward this racial polarization as evidence of the existence of Eugenics. Eugenics is a term for an old phenomena which asserts that Indian people should be exterminated because they are an inferior race of people.

Jefferson's suggestion to pursue the Indians to complete extermination. Since they were uttered by one of America's founding fathers, they conveniently have become lost to most historians in their insistent celebration of Jefferson's wisdom and humanity.

Roosevelt feared that American upper classes were being replaced by the "unrestricted breeding" of inferior racial stocks, the "utterly shiftless", and the "worthless".....
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We Thank Native American - Honoring our Ancestors, Culture & Spirituality for permission to share their screeds. First Nation Indigenous People deserve a far greater share in US History than has been given via those who shaped our written history.


Those same people wrote history books, developed video, and promulgated a history that fit their beliefs systems, paradigm and their views of life. Life that excludes equality for people of color and in many ways excludes equality for women. 


We offer an example of privilege that was the core of the framers of the US Constitution. We have excerpted from an article that aims to show just how elitist and insensitive were the framers of the Constitution   If you wish to view the linked article you will find additional comment about African-Americans, Jews, Moslems, poor whites. These are very different groups for different screeds. we have omitted those groups. The Progressive Influence wishes to remain in the realm of the Native Americans - Honoring Our Ancestors and  Spirituality screed.

Equal Rights for Some

Excerpt

During and after the American Revolution, when the rich white men were writing theDeclaration of Independence and the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, many people who were not rich, or white, or men thought maybe this was their chance to get equal rights too. They wrote to the men who were writing the Constitution and asked them to give women, and black people, and poor people, Jews, and Native Americans equal rights with rich white men. These people did win some rights for themselves, but they couldn't get equal rights with rich white men. 

Women:
Abigail Adams
In 1776, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband, John Adams, who was one of the men writing the Constitution, to ask him "in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies." But even though John Adams loved his wife very much and asked her for advice all the time, he answered, " As to your extraordinary Code of Laws, I cannot but laugh...We know better than to repeal our masculine systems," (see the letter here) and he did not include any rights for women in the Constitution. Abigail tried again, "I can not say that I think you very generous to the Ladies, for whilst you are proclaiming peace and good will to Men, Emancipating all Nations, you insist upon retaining an absolute power over Wives" (see the letter here). Mercy Otis Warren also tried to improve the legal position of women. But women could not vote until 1920, or be elected as President or as Senators or anything else. 

Excerpt

Native Americans:

Like women and black people, Native Americans were not allowed to vote in the first hundred years of the United States government. John Adams was surprised to find that, because the Declaration of Independence said all men were created equal, even "Indians slighted their Guardians and Negroes grew insolent to their Masters." (see the letter here) The Constitution (Article I, section 2) says that "Indians not taxed" should not even be counted in the census at all. The men who wrote the Constitution thought that Native Americans belonged to their own group, and were not part of the United States at all: they were not American citizens. Native American men did not get the right to vote until 1889, and then only if they left their tribes and lived like white men. It was 1924 before tribal Indians could vote.

Is there any wonderment about the accurate portrayal of the NAHOANS screed? The framers of the Constitution literally set the stage for "Manifest Destiny" that consumed many whites in the early nation and facilitated absolute and unyielding genocide against First Nation Native Americans. We at the TPI refuse to use the words "Founding Fathers" for one simple fact. Of the 79 members of the Continental Congress, 16 owned slaves and four of that sixteen became US Presidents.  There is no room for 'Founding Fathers' In our vernacular. True fathers or patriarchs do not own human beings and they do not practice genocide against a People.

Eagle Chief (Letakos-Lesa) Pawnee

"In the beginning of all things, wisdom and knowledge were with the animals, for Tirawa, the One Above, did not speak directly to man. He sent certain animals to tell men that he showed himself through the beast, and that from them, and from the stars and the sun and moon should man learn.. all things tell of Tirawa. 

All things in the world are two. In our minds we are two, good and evil. With our eyes we see two things, things that are fair and things that are ugly.... We have the right hand that strikes and makes for evil, and we have the left hand full of kindness, near the heart. One foot may lead us to an evil way, the other foot may lead us to a good. So are all things two, all two."


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