The Pardu

The Pardu
Watchful eyes and ears feed the brain, thus nourishing the brain cells.
Showing posts with label Medicaid. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Medicaid. Show all posts

Saturday, June 24, 2017

Medicaid: A GOP Target

If you read the TPI on a regular basis you are aware of our position (the humane position) on Medicaid and Medicare.  The Human Services program may not exist as a life-sustaining from which you derive benefits, but it is a program which offers quality of life opportunities for millions.  

As you view what follows, see if you can actually avoid the reality of the GOP (and their nascent leader: Trump) as purveyors of death panel ideology leading got killing policy.  We start with a few graphics for quick delivery of information to the rational person.

Our ending video segment is a piece from last night's The Last Word. Ari Melber filled in for Lawrence O'Donnell. Melber was literally brought to tears as he sat listening to one American who's quality of life (and maybe his actual life) is enhanced via Medicaid.

Image result for medicaid Image result for medicaid

Image result for Medicaid

Michael Phillips, who has spinal muscular atrophy and whose life literally depends on Medicaid, shares his fears about what Medicaid cuts could mean for his care:

Watch the remarkable full interview with Ari Melber:

The GOP Brand is showing its colors as a critical tool for Americans top .01% (ers) who will derive major financial benefits via healthcare laws signed by Trump. VOX linked.

If you have a bit more time, MSNBC's Joy Ann Reid ran a segment this morning which totally remedies the essence of the GOP. 


Friday, July 24, 2015

Bush Wants To Do What To Medicaid And Medicare?

What issues do the Koch brothers and the GOP have against Americans who sustain life via Medicaid and Medicare?

A quick glance at the two Human Services programs.

For sake of time (our time and your time) we will not dig deeper into the demographics.

In the past few days Jeb Bush has tickled the Koch brothers with talk of eliminating Medicaid and "Phasing out" Medicare. Imagine you and me at the mercy of insurance companies and horrific hospital administration without aid for older Americans?
And this comes from a candidate who claims to be a moderate...
Posted by Salon on Friday, July 24, 2015
How about a look and read o the Koch brothers agenda for America via the Bernie Sanders (I-VT) webpage.

In 1980, David Koch ran as the Libertarian Party’s vice-presidential candidate in 1980. 
Let’s take a look at the 1980 Libertarian Party platform
Here are just a few excerpts of the Libertarian Party platform that David Koch ran on in 1980:
  • “We urge the repeal of federal campaign finance laws, and the immediate abolition of the despotic Federal Election Commission.”
  • “We favor the abolition of Medicare and Medicaid programs.”
  • “We oppose any compulsory insurance or tax-supported plan to provide health services, including those which finance abortion services.”
  • “We also favor the deregulation of the medical insurance industry.”
  • “We favor the repeal of the fraudulent, virtually bankrupt, and increasingly oppressive Social Security system. Pending that repeal, participation in Social Security should be made voluntary.”
  • “We propose the abolition of the governmental Postal Service. The present system, in addition to being inefficient, encourages governmental surveillance of private correspondence.  Pending abolition, we call for an end to the monopoly system and for allowing free competition in all aspects of postal service.”
  • “We oppose all personal and corporate income taxation, including capital gains taxes.”
  • “We support the eventual repeal of all taxation.”
  • “As an interim measure, all criminal and civil sanctions against tax evasion should be terminated immediately.”
  • “We support repeal of all law which impede the ability of any person to find employment, such as minimum wage laws.”
  • “We advocate the complete separation of education and State.  Government schools lead to the indoctrination of children and interfere with the free choice of individuals. Government ownership, operation, regulation, and subsidy of schools and colleges should be ended.”
  • “We condemn compulsory education laws … and we call for the immediate repeal of such laws.”
  • “We support the repeal of all taxes on the income or property of private schools, whether profit or non-profit.”
  • “We support the abolition of the Environmental Protection Agency.”
  • “We support abolition of the Department of Energy.”
  • “We call for the dissolution of all government agencies concerned with transportation, including the Department of Transportation.”
  • “We demand the return of America's railroad system to private ownership. We call for the privatization of the public roads and national highway system.”
  • “We specifically oppose laws requiring an individual to buy or use so-called "self-protection" equipment such as safety belts, air bags, or crash helmets.”
  • “We advocate the abolition of the Federal Aviation Administration.”
  • “We advocate the abolition of the Food and Drug Administration.”
  • “We support an end to all subsidies for child-bearing built into our present laws, including all welfare plans and the provision of tax-supported services for children.”
  • “We oppose all government welfare, relief projects, and ‘aid to the poor’ programs. All these government programs are privacy-invading, paternalistic, demeaning, and inefficient. The proper source of help for such persons is the voluntary efforts of private groups and individuals.”
  • “We call for the privatization of the inland waterways, and of the distribution system that brings water to industry, agriculture and households.”
  • “We call for the repeal of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.”
  • “We call for the abolition of the Consumer Product Safety Commission.”
  • “We support the repeal of all state usury laws.”
In other words, the agenda of the Koch brothers is not only todefund Obamacare.  The agenda of the Koch brothers is to repeal every major piece of legislation that has been signed into law over the past 80 years that has protected the middle class, the elderly, the children, the sick, and the most vulnerable in this country.

Jeb Bush is outpacing all 2016 candidates for the presidency ad he hasn't yet officially declared as a candidate. The fact that he is avoiding a declaration to skirt campaigning financing issues is nefarious to put it mildly.

Ezra Klein's VOX published the stark reality and result of Bush's political subterfuge: Campaign Finance Visualized.   

It seems the Kochs are driving the 2016 run for the presidency just as they boasted. Bush with his attacks on Medicaid and Medicare seems to be the perfect stooge Oval Office holder.


Saturday, April 4, 2015

SCOTUS Ruling May Reach Into Your Family (Any Medicaid Recipients In Your Family?)

While there is no surprise with Republican cuts to Human Services programs, it is both alarming and surprising when the (conservative) SCOTUS rules in favor Medicaid restrictions. The level of alarm is exacerbated when the impact of the SCOTUS decision reaches so deeply into the fabric of the nation.

Are you aware of the full scope of Medicaid benefits? If you have an iota of compassion for Americans who rely of Medicaid to sustain life, you should consider expanded your knowledge.

Center on Budget Policy Priorities

If you expanded you knowledge of how Medicaid benefits millions, have a Talking Points Memo read on the recent Court ruling. 


A New Supreme Court Ruling On Medicaid Just Put 68 Million People At Risk


AP Photo / Evan Vucci

The SCOTUS ruling in no way influences current 2016 Budget negotiations. Yet, the ruling absolutely adds another stamp to American conservatism's grip on the nation.


Thursday, November 6, 2014

Eric Wattree.Beneath The Spin: So What Do Progressives Do Now


So What Do Progressives Do Now, In Response To The 2014 Midterm Disaster?

Beneath the Spin * Eric L. Wattree   

So What Do Progressives Do Now, In Response To The 2014 Midterm Disaster?

There’s an old axiom that says, "When the going gets tough, the tough gets going." I would like to modify that to say, "When the going gets tough, the tough gets tougher," and that’s exactly must happen now that the Corporate/GOP Alliance has taken over congress if we’re going to save America.

What we saw in the last election was the victory of ignorance over knowledge. That should never happen, and the only reason it did was because the knowledgeable didn’t assert themselves forcefully enough. One of the biggest problems that knowledgeable people often have is making the assumption that everyone can see what they can see. But that’s far from true. I warned my son and daughter about it as teenagers - NEVER assume that everybody can see what you see. The reason for that is, the knowledgeable are only knowledgeable due to their intellectual predisposition. They base their perception of reality ON reality, by giving truth, facts, and logic priority over what makes them feel most comfortable.

But there are many people in this world who don’t base their perception of reality on truth, facts, and logic. These people tend to be FEELERS, rather than thinkers, so they invariably give ideology priority over truth. When such people are faced with an inconvenient fact, instead of accepting that fact and using it to modify their perception, they’ll do whatever they have to do to contort truth into a configuration that fits comfortably into what they WANT to believe. We can see that tendency at work in the conservative claim that, "President Obama is un-American - he’s engaged in a socialist plot to insure my family against catastrophic illness." That assertion sounds ridiculously funny to most of us, but to FEELERS who feel a desperate need to hate Obama, it represents perfectly sound logic, and the failure of progressives to recognize that fact, and act on it, is what led to the 2014 midterm disaster.

In my article, "The 2014 Midterm Election - A Towering Testament To Monumental Stupidity,", I allude to a letter that I sent to President Obama back in February in an attempt to avert this midterm disaster. In the letter I point out the following:

"So while I think you, personally, should continue in the mode that you’ve established, at the same time, you should create a staff - housed right next door to the Oval Office - whose sole purpose is to debunk Republican disinformation. Then, whenever any Republican appears on the news to distort reality, he or she should be able to look forward to the next day’s news cycle being flooded with information not only debunking his or her words, but also, examining every action that he or she has engaged in during their career that tends to be in conflict with their current position. In short, you should parade their hypocrisy before the American people.

"If you would take that simple action, Mr. President, you would not only drive home to the people the GOP’s hypocrisy, but you would cause individual Republicans to run away from the cameras instead of stumbling all over one another to be the first one to present the latest Republican assault on reality. In addition, it would appease the thirst for blood among the people in your base, provide writers like myself with grist for our mill, and also give us an indication of what areas of investigation would bear the most fruit."

I go on to point out that "Since much of the GOP’s popularity and success is based upon the complete ignorance of a sizable percentage of the American electorate, I’m convinced that if the President would have followed my advice and educated the American people to what they’re actually dealing with in the GOP, he could have done an end run around what we witnessed last night."

But the President didn’t choose to take my advice, and since, for some reason, our Democratic politicians don’t see fit to confront GOP lies and disinformation, as progressives, WE’VE got to become the staff that I spoke to the President about establishing. WE can use the internet to do the research, and WE can, and MUST, go on a single-minded mission to debunk GOP lies, and push TRUTH down America’s throat. If we don’t, the Corporate/GOP Alliance is going to attack, and try to reverse Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, the Affordable Care Act, unemployment insurance, the Fair Labor Standards Act, the minimum wage, the Voting Rights Act, and everything that’s been put into place to protect the poor and middle class America since the New Deal. That, is their agenda - to enslave the American people by leaving us totally dependent upon Corporate America.

Please start your research with the issues presented in the articles below. The information therein represents many hours of research, and provides posters that makes the information easily digestible. They'll give you much perspective, and will allow you to hit the ground running. Providing sound and irrefutable facts and knowledge is the key to getting America to open its eyes - and this may be our last chance to do that. Consider this. If the Corporate/GOP Alliance wins both the presidency and both houses of congress in the next election, the American experiment in democracy, is over.





Eric L. Wattree

Citizens Against Reckless Middle-Class Abuse (CARMA)
Religious bigotry: It's not that I hate everyone who doesn't look, think, and act like me - it's just that God does. 


Friday, January 10, 2014

UPDATE January 19, 2014: Rand Paul Steps Into A World Of Provable Lie

UPDATE:  Washington Post The Fact Checker...How did Rand Paul's son end-up on Medicaid?

As we suggested in our piece of last week, the prospect of Paul's son and automatic enrollment in Medicaid is as remote as Rand Paul avoiding plagiarism.

The Fact Checker did not outright declare Pinocchio (s) based on what is available for review (today); the article reads with the same level of suspicion we keyboard a week ago.


We restate our commitment to what we perceive as a Rand Paul lie!

Start your viewing at the 7:33 minute mark. unless you wish to sit through seven minutes of the most dishonest and self-aggrandizement idiot in the US Senate. We know of Paul's pathological tendency to lie, plagiarize and simply to make stuff-up If you ever wonder why at times he rambles and stumbles through answers or comments. We suggest he stumbles and rambles because for a split-second he doesn't have a ready lie to lay on the listeners and viewers.

ABC's Interview

Related transcript excerpt
....Your opposition to obamacare has been no secret, but i understand now that the issue has also become personal for you, is it true you had trouble signing up for obamacare and you're not sure your family is covered?  
At this point I'm unsure. The other day I tried to get my son signed up through the Kentucky exchange. I have here my son's medicaid card.  
We didn't try to get him medicaid. I'm trying to pay for his insurance. They automatically enrolled him in medicaid.  
For a month they wouldn't talk to us because they weren't sure he existed. He had to go down to welfare office, prove his existence. Next thing we know we get a medicaid card.  
I'm trying to pay for insurance and can't pay for it and I'm uncertain now whether I'm enrolled d. C. And/or Kentucky. And it's a mess. I keep getting an error code every time I go in, it won't let me edit my policy to try to make sure that my family is covered. This is an unfolding disaster.  
That I don't think gets better any time soon.
Breitbart Dot Com went here with a title slant that was susceptible to backlash from Paul's obvious lying while setting on ABC this past Sunday.

Breitbart 1:07 minutes

As I watched Lawrence O'Donnell broadcast of the Paul's remarks, my mind was filled with, "There is something seriously wrong with his story. The information seemed false and I have heard no other such reports. Why would such a mix-up conveniently hit one of the ACA's major chief opponents (and one of the US Senate's most dishonest people)?"

Mother Jones probed Paul's claims and found the Senator followed suit with his standard practice of stretching he truth to the point of out-right lying. One additional point. Is there a medical diagnosis for the affliction that has beset GOP politicians who invoke their families or involved their families in outright lies and visual subterfuge? The only term that comes to out non-medical minds is: pathological liar

Definition of PATHOLOGICAL LIAR: an individual who habitually tells lies so exaggerated or bizarre that they are suggestive of mental disorder
Where is the veracity and playing fair in the GOP?

We ask you to think back to the Paul Ryan (cameras in tow) invasion of a food pantry mere weeks before the 2012 General Election. We use the word "invasion" because the director of the pantry eventually spoke frankly about Ryan's arrival with no previous warning, prior permission or pantry invitation. Rand Paul's lies via use of his son, is deplorable, yet totally not a surprise. The salient point, is the Ryan family feigned cleaning pots and kitchen utensils. Problem is, all photo shoot items were previously cleaned and properly stored around the pantry. The entire invasion was a photo and film camera opportunity and no more (with his wife and kids as active actors).

Patrick Caldwell, Mother Jones reporter, followed-up on the ABC broadcast as would most good and competent journalist. Unlike, Breitbart Dot Com (who employees no real journalist) and other Right-wing media, via contacting a Kentucky official. Caldwell sought details about Paul's claims. If you saw the Lawrence O'Donnell, The Last Word,  segment last night, you know that Paul's and his Seante team have not returned calls to O''Donnell's researchers. We wonder why?

We are running a redundant video minute of the ABC interview. One reason for the redundant posting is our way of ensuring that Breitbart did not pull a James O'Keeffe strategic editing of the segment. 

Mother Jones

If you did not read the linked Mother Jones piece above, we offer a synopsis.

Paul, a chief opponent of the ACA, had apparently enrolled his family and claims one son was inadvertently enrolled in a program they did not desire. We find the scenario very intriguing. How difficult would it be for the previously proven dishonest Paul to simply claim, "Oh we filled out the wrong form!" If it is discovered he actually enrolled the kid in Medicaid? It wouldn't be very difficult and for a man with a lesser set of values regarding veracity, not a big hill to claim. "Oh we made a mistake." But, think deeper, medical enrollment records are sealed and protected under HIPPA, so if there was enrollment treachery, it may never come up for public scrutiny.  Of course, we should not assume Paul is being honest regarding the entire matter.

Basically, Rand Paul indicted his son was automatically enrolled in Medicaid. He even brandished (from distance) a small card, we assume was to serve as evidence of the improper enrollment. 

Paul commented.
"We didn't try to get him Medicaid…They automatically enrolled him in Medicaid," Paul said. "For a month they wouldn't talk to us because they said they weren't sure he existed. He had to go down to the welfare office, prove his existence, then, next thing we know, we get a Medicaid card."
The Senator did not stop at that point, He stepped into the twilight zone and a universally and effectively shelved his comments as hyperbole.  
"Most of the people in Kentucky are getting automatically enrolled in Medicaid."
According to Caldwell, a conversation with a Kentucky state health official shed light on Pauls' astronomical journey into hyperbole and zaniness. A conversation with Jill Midkiff, communications director of Kentucky's health department, yielded clear disavowal of Paul;s claims. Disavowal based on the actual structure of KYNET enrollment tools.
 "We're not automatically enrolling people," Midkiff explains. "People have to actually go and apply." 
Caldwell sums-up the matter as expected, Paul is lying or Paul is perpetrating a bit of a scam for political advantage.

Midkiff couldn't discuss the Paul family's specific troubles due to confidentiality laws. But her general description of the state's exchange clearly contradicts Paul's story. When a Kentuckian visits Kynect, the state's health insurance website, she's asked to provide basic information about herself—age, location, income, number of dependents, etc.—to determine whether she qualifies for the Medicaid expansion or other insurance subsidies. The website is designed to encourage people who are eligible for Medicaid to apply, but it doesn't force anyone onto the Medicaid rolls. The applicant would still have to actively choose to enroll in a specific Medicaid plan.
The Paul story seems as fishy as his attempt to hide is lack of support for Civil Rights laws via fumbling utterances when caught on camera with Rachel Maddow. Paul doesn't seem to be gifted with an ability to apply deep cognitive processes towards any issues. He also appears a the benefactor of a tea party surge in 2010 to secure a six years seat in the US senate and he doesn't posses the requisite mental acuity to legislate. So, he traipses around stumbling through interviews and if this episode is endemic continues to exercise a trait so often lacking in the US Congress: honesty.


Sunday, October 6, 2013

Partnering With Connect The Dots USA

The TPI believes in a high level of information. Connect The Dots USA provides that high level information regarding the Affordable Care Act (AKA ObamaCares). 

Share with friends, family, neighbors, and at the grocery store. If we sit back an allow the Right to run roughshod over an opportunity to have any form of national healthcare, we are literally giving them another 2010 midterm victory.  We would also be guilty of not helping people who need some form of healthcare.

While parts of the government may be shut down, the ACA Marketplaces are open for business. And that’s the irony of the GOP extortion game — the ObamaCare tax credits and Medicaid expansion are part of Mandatory spending like Social Security, Medicare and existing Medicaid. Shutting down the Discretionary parts of the government just hurts other people, but it does not stop ObamaCare.

Judging by the nearly 3 million who logged on to the 34 federally run exchanges, there seems to be great demand for affordable health insurance. Imagine that! There’s still lots of time to sign up as the technical glitches get fixed and web traffic capacity added.

Remember, open enrollment is Oct. 1, 2013 to March 31, 2014. Coverage can start as soon as Jan. 1, 2014 if you enroll and pay by Dec. 15, 2013.

or call the 24/7 help line 1-800-318-2596

For the Medicaid expansion in Arizona, you can go directly to Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS):
or call 1-800-654-8713 (outside Maricopa County)
You can also apply for AHCCCS at any DES office.

For my fellow grassroots activists who want to go beyond social media to educate the public, you can find the materials I use here:

Pages 1&2: ACA Basics / Tax Credits flyer (print in b&w to save $)

Pages 3&4: Metal Levels / Contact Info half-sheet flyers

4 signs in letter size and also 11x17 spliced together for 21x17 size
(ObamaCare and Affordable Care Act versions - 2 each):

Pages 7 thru 9: ObamaCare: What’s In It For You? Get The Facts Here

Pages 10 thru 12: Are You Eligible For ObamaCare Tax Credits? Enrollment Opens Oct. 1

Pages 13 thru 15: Affordable Care Act: What’s In It For You? Get The Facts Here

Pages 16 thru 18: Are You Eligible For Affordable Care Tax Credits? Enrollment Opens Oct. 1

Laser print in black on bright yellow paper. For larger version, splice two 11x17 halves together to make a 21" wide x 17" high sign; glue a large paint stick handle to a piece of 21"w X 17"h cardboard; and finally staple the yellow signs to each side of the cardboard. Makes an eye-catching, inexpensive, lightweight sign.

Have fun!


Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Connect-The-Dots-USA: Health Insurance Exchanges

Re-Blog from Connect The Dots USA

But the best parts of Obamacare come January 1st, 2014. Each state is required to set up a web-based health insurance exchange where companies compete for your business and provide easy-to-read, standardized comparison shopping. It’s like Travelocity for health insurance. The 27 states that failed to set up their own exchange are, ironically, getting the federal format. 

If you cannot get qualified insurance through your employer or through an existing government program like Medicare, Medicaid, VA or Tricare, the exchange (aka the Health Insurance Marketplace) is a new opportunity for you to shop for health insurance and probably get some help buying it. Open enrollment starts Oct 1st, 2013 (that’s less than 2 weeks away!) with coverage starting as early as Jan 1st, 2014 if you get enrolled and make your first payment by Dec 15th.
Find your exchange here:

All policies sold must meet minimum standards and cover a comprehensive set of 10 essential health benefit categories including doctor visits, preventive care, hospitalization (such as surgery), prescriptions, mental health, rehabilitation, laboratory services and emergency care... You know, all the things a reasonable consumer would assume would be covered in a health insurance policy but which unfortunately are not covered in many policies sold today. 

With the Marketplace, you can be confident you’re not getting a crappy, swiss-cheese policy full of holes. The exchanges are designed to give individuals, families and small businesses the transparency and group buying leverage they currently lack.

And best of all, there will no longer be any discrimination based on pre-existing conditions, gender or occupation. Good-bye to 20-page underwriting applications. Rates can vary only by geography, age (but no more than 3:1 from the oldest to the youngest) and tobacco use (maximum of 50% more). For that alone, I say, “Hooray for ACA!”

Monday, August 26, 2013

Affordable Care Act. Acceptance From One Who Opposed The Law

The Affordable Car Act (AKA Obamacare, "ObamaCares"), More popular than some think and far more popular than the GOP will ever admit.


The following is one very intriguing story.

The basis for the story goes back quite a few months to the Republican Governor of Kentucky indication he would not stand against Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion exchanges.

On August 7th, Kentucky's Medicaid Expansion Dot Com, published an update on expansion in the state. 

Think Progress has published a telling piece regarding misconceptions of the ACA (AKA Obamacare). The Think Progress story offers validation of a Daily Kos writers screed on healthcare reform and how it has been tarnished by the "slick" manifestations of Republican negative-branding. Basically, the Kos writer's point was, as long as the ACA is referred to in polls as Obamacare, some survey respondents will score to the negative. It is a valid argument.  

Early in "reform" deliberations, GOP operatives developed a moniker to leverage perceptions of malcontent against national healthcare reform and negative perceptions of President Obama. The strategy worked!  

Despite White House counter measures via incorporating the moniker into legislation campaign strategy, many still believe the ACA is bad for the nation.  The point brings to mind a word I am seeing more and more: "ObamCares." I believe the president actually used the phraseology during the 2012 campaign. 

Think Progress's article relates to the changing face of perceptions regarding the ACA. When people are outside the grip of right-wing campaigns against healthcare reform. 

Think Progress Excerpt
 .....a Kentucky public health worker signing people up for insurance coverage under health care reform, and a middle-aged man who approached her booth at the State Fair. After Diaz-Dempsey explained that he will either qualify for tax credits to buy insurance through Kynect (the state’s new insurance marketplace) or an expanded Medicaid pool in October, the man seemed pleased and mused, “This beats Obamacare, I hope.”
If you did not follow the first link from the Think Progress piece, we offer an excerpt. 

CREDIT: The White House

LOUISVILLE, Ky. -- A middle-aged man in a red golf shirt shuffles up to a small folding table with gold trim, in a booth adorned with a flotilla of helium balloons, where government workers at the Kentucky State Fair are hawking the virtues of Kynect, the state’s health benefit exchange established by Obamacare.

The man is impressed. "This beats Obamacare I hope," he mutters to one of the workers.

“Do I burst his bubble?” wonders Reina Diaz-Dempsey, overseeing the operation. She doesn't. If he signs up, it's a win-win, whether he knows he's been ensnared by Obamacare or not.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act -- Obamacare -- totals 974 pages, and in the popular imagination is several times longer. How the complex law unfolds could very well determine the winner of Kentucky's high-stakes 2014 Senate race pitting Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R) against Democratic upstart Alison Lundergan Grimes -- and along with it control of the upper chamber.

But Diaz-Dempsey has managed to distill it all down to three sentences.

We are Kynect -- part of the new health care law.

Do you know anyone who doesn’t have health insurance?

You may qualify for Medicaid or a tax credit based on your income.

Reina Diaz-Dempsey

Diaz-Dempsey brought her pitch on Tuesday morning to the Kentucky State Fair.
Again, if you did not follow the links above, we are embedding a short video from Kynect.

The message in all of this: "Be an informed consumer." Information is the key to avoiding not only ignorance (lack of knowledge); it also helps to ward-off bad decisions.